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She follows the much-admired Judy Stacey, who retired earlier this year. What's the big deal about the city gardener? While I think it's great to promote from within organizations, I wonder if this position was advertised in any public way. As a civil service job, was this open competitive?

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Nick Saban: Dantonio has done a better job than I did at Michigan St.

This review provides an overview and integration of the use of resilience concepts to guide natural resources management actions. We emphasize ecosystems and landscapes and provide examples of the use of these concepts from empirical research in applied ecology.

We begin with a discussion of definitions and concepts of ecological resilience and related terms that are applicable to management. We suggest that a resilience-based framework for management facilitates regional planning by providing the ability to locate management actions where they will have the greatest benefits and determine effective management strategies. We review the six key components of a resilience-based framework, beginning with managing for adaptive capacity and selecting an appropriate spatial extent and grain.

Critical elements include developing an understanding of the factors influencing the general and ecological resilience of ecosystems and landscapes, the landscape context and spatial resilience, pattern and process interactions and their variability, and relationships among ecological and spatial resilience and the capacity to support habitats and species. We suggest that a spatially explicit approach, which couples geospatial information on general and spatial resilience to disturbance with information on resources, habitats, or species, provides the foundation for resilience-based management.

We provide a case study from the sagebrush biome that illustrates the use of geospatial information on ecological and spatial resilience for prioritizing management actions and determine effective strategies. Globally ecosystems are changing at an unprecedented rate largely due to human impacts, including land development and use, pollutants, invasive species, altered disturbance regimes, increasing CO 2 , and climate change.

Changes in species distributions and the emergence of novel ecosystem states increasingly challenge our capacity to manage for biodiversity, ecosystem functioning, and human well-being IPCC, ; Pecl et al.

Effective management of ecosystems in this era of rapid change requires an understanding of an ecosystem's response not only to these stressors and disturbances but also to management actions.

Clear formulation and application of ecological resilience concepts can provide the basis for managing ecosystems to enhance their capacity to cope with stressors and disturbances and help guide them through periods of reorganization. Periods of reorganization provide both crisis and opportunity, and management during these periods is critical.Ecological resilience concepts see Table 1 for definitions can provide the basis for increasing the capacity of systems to absorb, persist, and adapt to inevitable and unpredictable change Curtin and Parker, , and for taking advantage of management opportunities to transform systems to more desirable states.

Operationalizing ecological resilience concepts for management has been difficult because a framework for evaluating how ecosystem responses to disturbances and stressors vary over large heterogeneous landscapes and how this variation is related to ecological resilience has not been well developed or translated for the management community. Applying these concepts at scales relevant to management is becoming increasingly important as the scale and magnitude of ecosystem change increase.

To date, much of the literature on ecological resilience has focused on theory, definitions, and broad conceptualizations regarding the application of resilience concepts e. Much of the research has focused on the importance of species diversity and species functional attributes in affecting responses to stress and disturbance at fairly small local scales e. Pope et al. Recently, two applications of ecological resilience have come to the forefront and are being used at scales relevant to management.

Assessments of general resilience, or the broad ability of systems to maintain fundamental structures, processes, and functioning following disturbances after Folke et al. These assessments are based on an understanding of the relationships among an ecosystem's environmental characteristics, attributes and processes, and responses to stressors and disturbances Chambers et al.

Assessments of spatial resilience, or how spatial attributes, processes, and feedbacks vary over space and time in response to disturbances and affect the resilience of ecosystems after Allen et al.These assessments are based on an understanding of the changes in landscape composition and configuration in response to disturbances and the effects on ecosystems and species Frair et al.

The concept of spatial regimes Sundstrom et al. Developing an understanding of both general and spatial resilience has become more tractable over time because of the rapid development of the field of landscape ecology and the number of tools and models now available Turner, ; Wu and Loucks, ; McKenzie et al. Managing for ecological resilience necessarily requires a multiscale approach because of the nested, hierarchical nature of complex systems panarchy; Holling, ; Wu and Loucks, ; Allen et al.

Incorporating larger scales provides the basis for directing limited management resources to those areas on the landscape where they are likely to have the greatest benefit Holl and Aide, ; Allen et al.

Restoration efforts or conservation measures for individual species or small areas within large landscapes are often applied with the best of intentions but are unlikely to succeed in the long-term if they do not consider the larger environmental context, pattern and process interactions, and essential ecosystem elements, such as biodiversity, habitat connectivity, and capacity to supply ecosystem services over time.

Here, we focus on the use of resilience concepts to guide natural resources management actions. We emphasize ecosystems and landscapes as focal levels of assessment and provide examples of the use of these concepts from empirical research in natural resources management.

We begin by discussing definitions and concepts of ecological resilience and related terms that are applicable to management. We suggest that a resilience-based approach to management facilitates regional planning by providing the ability to locate management actions where they will have the greatest benefits.We review the six key components of a resilience-based approach, beginning with managing for adaptive capacity and selecting an appropriate spatial extent and grain. We suggest that a spatially explicit approach, which couples geospatial information on general and spatial resilience to disturbance with information on resources, habitats, or species, provides the foundation for prioritizing areas for management actions.

We provide a simple decision support tool that illustrates the use of geospatial information on general and spatial resilience for prioritizing management actions and determining effective strategies. Definitions and concepts related to ecological resilience Table 1 have been widely adapted in applied ecology, including conservation biology Curtin and Parker, , restoration ecology Bradshaw and Chadwick, ; Aronson et al.

In applied ecology, ecological resilience is often interpreted as a measure of the potential of a system to recover to a desired state, i. However, it is important to recognize that ecological resilience also applies to undesirable states Zelmer and Gunderson, , which may be highly resilient to management actions designed to return them to an original state, or transform them into more desirable states. In this context, resilience management entails 1 actively maintaining or enhancing ecological processes, structural and functional characteristics, and feedbacks of intact or desirable states, 2 eroding the resilience of undesirable states and fostering transitions to more desirable alternative states, and 3 increasing the capacity of systems to cope with new or altered disturbance regimes and climate change e.

Although many of the resilience definitions and concepts used in applied ecology were derived from Holling's original papers and resilience science, others have evolved independently. For example, in geomorphology, landform sensitivity is defined similarly to ecological resilience.

It is the 1 the propensity of a system to change as governed by a set of driving and resisting forces, and 2 the capacity of the system to absorb or resist the effects of the disturbance Downs and Gregory,Other definitions have been derived as new ecosystem threats and disciplines have emerged. For example, in invasive species ecology, resistance to invasion is defined as the abiotic and biotic attributes and ecological processes of an ecosystem that limit the population growth of an invading species D'Antonio and Thomsen,Confusion regarding use of the term resilience in applied ecology can arise because in disciplines such as disaster management, the term resilience is often used as a process, as in enhancing resilience.

This use of the term is normative and should be avoided. In various other disciplines, like engineering and medicine, resilience is defined as a rate of recovery. Measuring rates of recovery is straight forward, and often desirable, but fails when a system is non-stationary and where thresholds and alternative states occur Angeler and Allen,Striving for consistent use of the terms can help promote a common understanding of ecological resilience and facilitate its application to management.

Recognizing the similarities and resolving the differences among the use of the definitions and concepts can help foster the necessary interdisciplinary collaboration for effective management. Following disturbances or management actions, ecosystems often fail to return to the pre-disturbance condition. One of the most important concepts related to ecological resilience is the idea that complex systems can exhibit non-equilibrium conditions and exist in various alternative states that differ in processes, structures, functions, and feedbacks Lewontin, ; Holling,The existence of non-equilibrium dynamics and alternative states has been demonstrated for numerous systems.

The causes of shifts in states can arise from human perturbations such as nutrient enrichment, nitrogen deposition, acid rain from NOx and SOx, over-harvesting of fisheries and wildlife stocks, and inappropriate livestock grazing Scheffer et al.

Also, climate change may be further de-stabilizing processes, such as fire regimes Westerling et al. The actual shift in states may be triggered by stochastic events such as climatic extremes, disturbances like floods or wildfires, increased contagion of forest area, fuels, and forest density or insect outbreaks Scheffer et al.

They may also occur more gradually, for example, with changes in soil properties due to warming, nutrient enrichment, or acid rain that result in gradual species replacements, changes in functional group composition, and changes in trophic structures.

Some of the best-studied examples include eutrophication of lakes and coastal oceans, shifts among grassy and woody cover types in rangelands, degradation of coral reefs, and regional climate change Scheffer et al.

Systems can respond to disturbances or management actions in several different ways; developing an understanding of the tendency of a system to change states, and the factors influencing a change in state, is a key component of resilience-based management. The tendency of a system to shift states has often been illustrated using a ball and trough analogy. The size of the valley around a state trough is described as the basin of attraction and corresponds to the range of disturbance that a system ball can absorb without causing a shift to an alternative stable state, while the depth of the cup describes the intensity of disturbance that can be tolerated Holling,Transitions among states are a function of the abiotic or biotic variables or events, acting independently or in combination, that contribute directly to loss of state resilience and result in shifts between states Caudle et al.

Thresholds represent the point at which there is an abrupt change in states, or where small changes in one or more external conditions produce large and persistent responses in an ecosystem Angeler and Allen,Some of the factors influencing a change in state for systems with high vs.

A system with a strong basin of attraction can absorb change and remain within the same state over a range of disturbances and management actions. These types of systems have been described as having relatively high ecological resilience Scheffer et al. Conditions that contribute to a strong basin of attraction include favorable environmental conditions, strong feedbacks at multiple scales, and high levels of functional diversity and redundancy, which can stabilize the system and disturbances within the range of historic variability.

A system with a weak basin of attraction may respond strongly to disturbance and move to an alternative state Table 2. These types of systems have been described as having relatively low ecological resilience Scheffer et al. Conditions that contribute to a weak basin of attraction include less favorable environmental conditions, inadequate species or functional groups to stabilize the systems, and disturbances that are outside of the range of historic variability. These systems typically represent the greatest challenge for managers as active management is often required and return to the initial state may not be possible if new conditions e.

A system with more than one basin of attraction may respond to disturbance by changing states and moving to a new basin of attraction, but reorganize and return to the original state once conditions improve Table 2. These types of systems have high adaptive capacity to changes in environmental conditions e. Table 2.Ball and trough diagrams illustrating differences in the response of ecosystems to stressors and disturbances, the factors that contribute to ecological resilience and adaptive capacity, and the management implications [adapted from Scheffer et al.

Simple ball and trough diagrams help to conceptualize the changes possible in systems and the driving forces behind the changes, but in reality systems are highly complex and can exhibit multiple different trajectories and alternative states over time depending on the environmental factors, species and functional groups, and the type and characteristics of the disturbance.

Also, system trajectories may be non-stationary due to a variety of internal and external drivers Sundstrom et al. For example, with continued warming the relationship between climate and ecosystem responses to disturbances and management actions is likely to shift and managing for historical conditions may not maintain ecosystem goods, services, values, and biological diversity into the future Millar et al.

Recent analyses suggest that rather strong self-organization positive feedbacks keeps systems together, and that they may move in response to changing conditions unless or until a hard e. State-and-transition models STMs have long been used to describe the alternative states within ecosystems, factors causing the transitions, rates of transition, and potential restoration pathways.

Range scientists and managers were among the first to adopt these concepts to describe changes in vegetation community composition due to factors such as drought, livestock grazing, and management actions Archer, ; Westoby et al. Well codified STMs applicable to rangelands across the western U. Most STMs developed for rangelands represent conceptual models based on expert opinion.

However, empirically derived STMs have been used to relate plant community composition to factors such as climate, hydrologic regimes, soil processes, and management actions Zweig and Kitchens, ; Karchergis et al. Also, longer-term vegetation data have been used to evaluate transitions among communities, transition frequency, magnitude of accompanying compositional change, presence of unidirectional trajectories, and lack of reversibility within various timescales Bagchi et al.

Caution is needed when applying STMs to management problems. Most STM models require initial parameterization that involves assumptions about the numbers and types of states, their transition times, biotic and abiotic disturbances and stresses that create transitions or advance succession, and the frequency, patch sizes, and intensities of disturbances that might be expected.

In essence, STMs do what the user tells them to do and consequently there is little opportunity for surprise. Thus, it is important to have relevant, independent datasets from the systems under observation, in order to validate and calibrate STM models before the results are accepted as representative of the modeled system Keane,Integration of resilience concepts with landscape concepts provides the basis for understanding how ecosystem attributes and processes interact with landscape structure to influence the responses of ecosystems to disturbances and stressors and their capacity to support resources, habitats, and species over time.

In this context, the concepts of ecological, general, and spatial resilience are interrelated Figure 1 , Table 3. The ecological resilience of ecosystems and general resilience of large landscapes is a function of environmental characteristics, disturbance regimes, ecosystem attributes and processes, and ecological memory e. Environmental factors, including climate, topography, and soils, determine the abiotic and biotic attributes of ecosystems.

The disturbances with which ecosystems evolved, such as drought, extreme wet periods, fire, wind throw, and flooding, influence both abiotic and biotic ecosystem attributes and processes Pickett and White, ; Pickett et al.

Anthropogenic disturbances, management actions, and climate change act not only on the abiotic and biotic attributes and processes of ecosystems, but also on ecosystem disturbance regimes to affect ecological and general resilience over time. Figure 1. Illustration of the primary factors that influence ecological, general, and spatial resilience. Ecological resilience of ecosystems and general resilience of large landscapes to ecosystem and anthropogenic disturbances is a function of environmental characteristics, ecosystem attributes and processes, and ecosystem and anthropogenic disturbances.


This time, he's in charge and he has much flashier jewelry. Dantonio, an assistant with the program from and the Cincinnati head coach the past three seasons, was hired Monday as the Spartans' coach. At his introduction, he displayed the championship ring he won as Ohio State's defensive coordinator. He succeeds John L. Smith, who was fired before completing his fourth season in East Lansing. He finished with a record. Michigan State finished this year and has missed out on a bowl trip three straight seasons for the first time since the early s.

L LANDSCAPE PLAN & SCHEDULE. ARCHITECTURAL Nick Skover. PHONE: Goff D'Antonio Associates. 34 Radcliffe St.

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Something special is happening at Concord Country Club. At the start of , a renovation effort will resume. We had to spread the money out over three fiscal years as well and not reduce any revenue in season. Concord is a club that out of necessity keeps a close eye on its bottom line.Located in West Chester, Pennsylvania, just north of the Delaware state line in suburban Philadelphia, it was founded in as the Brinton Lake Club; the present name was adopted inFollowing his death in , the club passed to his son Gerret van Sweringen Copeland, who, in turn, sold it to the members inThe ongoing renovation effort began inThe first two-thirds of the project saw the construction of two completely new holes, Nos.

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See William and Mary's football season -- from the spring game through the fall season -- in pictures. Joe D'Antonio had lived in New England virtually his entire life before relocating to Richmond Short Pump, to be precise in the spring. He does a nice job of blending in … until he opens his mouth. That huge department store every city has? Wal maht.

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The use of software that blocks ads hinders our ability to serve you the content you came here to enjoy. We ask that you consider turning off your ad blocker so we can deliver you the best experience possible while you are here. Related Links: Results The No. Senior Sonny Schieldt Edgerton, Wis. Schieldt tallied a mark with all victories coming by decision, while Sundberg posted the same record with one major decision. Freshman Cadin Koeppel Cary, Ill.

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Game Notes Depth Chart. The No. We need to be able to continue to do that as we move forward. Wyoming is an extremely well coached football team. You can see some of the things starting to happen already at Wyoming.

Landscape Painting with an Artist and a Naturalist: ART CS UC Santa Barbara, College of Landscape Ecology: ESM PI: Carla D'Antonio.

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Alabama head coach Nick Saban had some kind words for the man he hired when he was the head coach of Michigan State inDantonio was a defensive coach under Saban at Michigan State from — before moving on to become the defensive coordinator at Ohio State. Since then, Dantonio has gone 87—32, and won three Big Ten titles. Saban was just with the Spartans, never finishing above second place in the Big Ten standings before leaving his post in for a head coaching gig with LSU.

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Shalene Jha is a conservation biologist specialized in the fields of landscape genetics, population ecology, and foraging ecology. Her work examines how landscape composition influences gene flow processes, foraging patterns, and population viability for plants and animals. She has experience in population genetics, movement modeling, GIS, and ecosystem service science, and she conducts her research internationally, across temperate and tropical ecosystems. She is active in science communication and outreach, and works on media projects that focus on scientific awareness at home and abroad.

Three luxury convention properties — the room Rosen Plaza, room Rosen Centre and room Rosen Shingle Creek—combined feature , sq.

Herbivores alter plant biodiversity species richness in many of the world's ecosystems, but the magnitude and the direction of herbivore effects on biodiversity vary widely within and among ecosystems. One current theory predicts that herbivores enhance plant biodiversity at high productivity but have the opposite effect at low productivity. Yet, empirical support for the importance of site productivity as a mediator of these herbivore impacts is equivocal.Here, we synthesize data from large-herbivore exclusion studies, spanning a fold range in site productivity, to test an alternative hypothesis-that herbivore-induced changes in the competitive environment determine the response of plant biodiversity to herbivory irrespective of productivity. Under this hypothesis, when herbivores reduce the abundance biomass, cover of dominant species for example, because the dominant plant is palatable , additional resources become available to support new species, thereby increasing biodiversity.

What is your favorite project you worked on and why? The Wequassett Resort renovation on Cape Cod. The scope included a variety of new building types, infrastructure systems, landscaping, and amenities consistent with a 5-star resort. The project was collaborative from the start with a team of talented designers, engineers, contractors, and craftsmen.

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